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K-007.jpg Solution brief of Drive-Axle simulation -  powertrain simulation -  Dana Incorporated

Product: Drive-Axle
Analysis Goal:  Predict the shape of the oil band to match physical testing

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In physical testing the thickness of the fluid film that formed on a spinning wheel of an axle assembly had a distinct shape. A virtual model using Particleworks was established which reproduced the shape of the oil band correctly.


① Creation of the simple 1-chamber model to verify the possibility of reproduction of the oil band

② Simulation of the 1-chamber model and oil model using the fluid particles

③ Model tuning to find the maximum size of the particles to reproduce the oil band to reduce the simulation time

④ Establishing of the 3-chamber model after verifying that the oil band is reproduced with 1.3M particles

⑤ Simulation with 7M particles which takes 12 days without GPU

⑥ Model optimization to finish the simulation within 1~2 days with 2 GPUs

Key Technologies for Analysis

Highly precise fluid modeling according to the characteristics of oil (Particleworks)

Selection of the optimal size of the particles to reduce the simulation time

High-speed particle simulation using GPU technology

Correlation of oil accumulation on surface of a rotating wheel



The Problems that Customers are Facing

• Need for a CFD tool to reproduce the oil film deposition on the spinning component


• Design improvement and verification using the virtual model which can reproduce the shape of the oil band

• Visualization and quantitative analysis using Particleworks CFD ( details on Particleworks )

Position, Velocity of solid gears


• Oil-band reproduced by the simulation well matched with the experimental data so that in the future the drag could be predicted using a virtual model

• Various designs can be tested virtually and the opportunity for design improvements can be identified

Other Application

Analysis of changes in load torque according to the difference in temperature of lubricating oil

ㆍRelationship between viscosity and load torque according to the temperature of lubricating oil after turning off the engine input      torque

ㆍAnalysis of difference in reduction of speed according to lubrication status between the states that have different temperatures (viscosity)

Analysis of the reduction gear train which takes into consideration the viscosity of lubricating oil

ㆍVisualization of the lubricating oil spray which was not possible until now

ㆍThe effect of the gear output according to the load of oil viscosity can be designed to be closer to reality

Behavior analysis of lubricating oil spray inside the differential gearbox

ㆍAnalysis of load torque when viscous fluid (lubricating oil) has been added to the differential gear train robot

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RecurDyn Particleworks Dana

(This technology is often used for drivetrain and powertrain simulation)